Prepared by the Field Crop Unit Team
Corn: Greg Stewart
Corn moved ahead nicely this week with early planted corn that was not frozen now in the 6-7 leaf stage. Some areas still struggle with heavy rainfall, and saturated soil conditions. The Soil N Survey conducted by OMAF staff this past week showed that on medium textured soils nitrate levels were slightly below the long term trend. The average from these soils this year was 10.7 PPM nitrate N, compared to an historical average of 11.0 PPM, compared to 12.2 PPM in 2012 (warm spring) and 9.5 PPM in 2011 (cool spring). In general terms, on the medium and heavy textured soils there appears to be no reason to depart from average or slightly above average sidedress N rates in 2013. Producers with fall manure, red clover or alfalfa should be careful to apply somewhat higher than normal N rates. Heavy rains that caused saturated conditions and standing water in fields are not fully represented in this survey and growers should be aware of the potential N loss from denitrification in these fields. Taking your own pre-sidedress N test in order to fine-tune application rates is strongly recommended. See the complete N Survey Report at gocorn.net.
Cereals: Peter Johnson
Frost damage on winter wheat was more significant than expected. Considering it did not get that cold (-2 C) the amount of damage in some fields was surprising. A few fields near Thamesville were replanted to soybeans. Damage is sporadic, often with heads partially frozen. Frozen white heads should not be confused with Take All. If the problem was truly Take All then the whole head and the stem would all bleach white. Spraying is complete in the southern parts of the province, but the crop has not been ready to the north. Crop progress has been slow with cool temperatures. Even if wheat is past the ideal window to spray for fusarium it can still be sprayed for leaf disease. Most of the yield benefit comes from foliar leaf disease control. With warmer temperatures, the risk for fusarium may be much higher in the north. Wheat has been very clean of diseases with a few exceptions. Septoria can move up the plant rapidly under the right conditions.
Canola/Edible Beans: Brian Hall
Canola: Canola stands are fair to good with emergence and survival issues. Seedling diseases are evident due to saturated and tight soil conditions. High flea beetle populations and re-invasion has resulted in a lot of frustration in achieving control. Swede midge population updates are available on Ontario Canola Growers website. Weed control is a priority. If growing Liberty Link canola, performance of the herbicide Liberty 200SN is maximized when applied during the warmest, sunlit hours of the day (9 am – 6pm) and with spray nozzles delivering medium droplets and water volumes at 150-200 L/ha (15-20 gal/acre). Control of lamb’s-quarters and velvetleaf may be enhanced with the addition of ammonium sulphate to Liberty 200SN. For improved control of wild oats a tank-mix of Liberty 200SNwith either Centurion or Select is recommended.
Forages/Pastures: Joel Bagg/Jack Kyle
Forages: Forage harvest has been delayed by frequent rains, and limited to haylage and baleage. Yields have been increasing, but nutrient quality is suffering with advancing maturity. There is still considerable first-cut acreage to be harvested. Second-cut regrowth looks excellent. With lots of moisture, applying nitrogen to second-cut regrowth of grassy fields will provide extra yield. (http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=6830) Fertilizer and liquid manure should be applied immediately after harvest to minimize wheel traffic damage. Remove hay bales from the field as soon as possible. Store dry hay under cover and off the ground to prevent spoilage. Proper hay sheds are easier to justify with currently high hay prices. Commercial propionic acid hay preservatives are used to inhibit mould growth and heating while bales “sweat” and cure over time as moisture dissipates from the bales in storage. Use the correct application rate for the percent moisture. Probe-type hand-held electronic moisture testers can be subject to variability and error; calibrate to factors that can influence readings, such as forage species, bale type, acid and bale density. It is essential that hay storages have adequate ventilation to enable moisture to dissipate from bales. Tightly stacking bales should be avoided. (Preventing Mouldy Hay Using Propionate Preservatives
Pastures: Lots of moisture but cloudy days and cool temperatures are resulting in slow grass growth. Applying 40-50 kg/ha of nitrogen will stimulate good growth that will provide extra summer pasture. If plants with maturing seed heads or flowering weeds are plentiful in your pastures then consider clipping to stimulate new forage growth and stop the weeds from setting seed. Rotating pastures every 1-3 days and allowing sufficient rest and recovery time of (30-45 days depending on growing conditions) will give the most productivity.
Soybeans: Horst Bohner
The majority of soybeans in Ontario have been seeded but some northern counties still have significant acreage to seed. Most of the crop is in good to fair condition but plant stand issues are prevalent in certain areas. A tremendous amount of spraying needs to be accomplished as soon as conditions are dry enough. Spray based on the growth stage of the weed not the crop. Replanting has been centered around heavy clay soils in the southwest. Many of these fields were planted into moisture during dry conditions (1.75 – 2.0” deep) but were then followed by excessive rainfall and cool temperatures. Due to the cool, wet weather the seed ran out of energy before it could fully emerge. Seed rot and root rots are also prevalent. Cool wet conditions are favourable to diseases, slugs, and slow growth. Slug feeding is common and bean leaf beetle feeding is being reported. Unless the feeding is severe soybeans will outgrow early season leaf feeding.
Weather Summary: Source: www.weatherinnovations.com/weather.cfm
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
- Telephone: CropLine at 1-888-449-0937
- Online: www.omafra.gov.on.ca/croppest